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Home » What Is Prostate Cancer? Symptoms and Causes

What Is Prostate Cancer? Symptoms and Causes

Prostate cancer is a common kind of cancer in men, which is treatable if diagnosed in the beginning phases. This cancer starts in the prostate gland, which sits between the bladder and the penis. It is marked by an uncontrolled (harmful) development of cancer cells in the prostate gland, which is a walnut-sized gland in men, found just beneath the bladder and before the rectum, surrounding the urethra.

There are many options for prostate cancer treatment in India and all over the world. The survival rate is significantly improved with early diagnosis and the right treatment. Read on to find out more about the symptoms and causes of prostate cancer.


A patient with early prostate cancer is typically asymptomatic. Malignant growth symptoms related to the development of prostate cancer, which may happen with early and late-stage/advanced-stage illness, include the following:

  • Painful urination
  • Blood in the urine or semen 
  • In some cases, pain on ejaculation or urination
  • Difficulty starting and maintaining or stopping urination
  • Loss of control of urination
  • Pain or discomfort when setting
  • Difficulty in having an erection
  • A decrease in the amount of fluid ejaculated

Advanced Symptoms:

The symptoms in the advanced phase include:

  • Back pain
  • Swelling in the legs or feet
  • Bone pain or bone fracture, especially in the thighs, shoulder, or hips
  • Tiredness
  • Weight loss


Prostate cancer develops when explicit changes happen, generally in glandular cells. But the specific reasons are not known. A few risk factors for developing prostate cancer have been identified as:

  • Age– 60% of prostate cancer is seen in men more than 65 years old. The sickness is uncommon in men under 40.
  • Family History– A man whose father or brother has or had prostate cancer is twice as likely to develop the illness.
  • Nationality– Prostate cancer is more common in Europe, North America, Australia, and the Caribbean. It is uncommon in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America.


Prostate cancer is diagnosed before the disease has spread to distant bones or organs. Also, since, prostate cancer cells often develop slowly, immediate treatment is not needed. Patients are put into active observation. Those under active observation may get regular biopsies, PSA tests, and different tests to determine whether the cancer is growing or not.

  • Surgery

There are three types of surgery

  1. RALP (Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy)- This is the most common kind of prostate cancer surgery done today. The surgeon is helped with a robotic system that holds and aides the laparoscopic surgical apparatuses and camera.
  2. RORP (Retropubic Open Radical Prostatectomy)- For this, the surgeon will make a cut in lower stomach and eliminate the prostate through this opening. The whole prostate organ is taken out. 
  3. LRP (Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy)- This uses little cuts in the abdomen to eliminate the prostate with the use of small tools. This surgery has been replaced with RALP.
  • Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill or slow the development of cancer cells. Beams can be utilized as the primary therapy for prostate cancer. It can be used after surgery if the cancer isn’t completely eliminated or if it returns.

Advanced Prostate Cancer

As cancer grows, it can spread all through the body. If it returns after reduction, the treatment alternatives will change.

  1. Hormonal Therapy– It is also called Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT). It uses medications to block or bring down testosterone and other male sex hormones that fuel the disease. ADT basically keeps prostate cancer cells from testosterone. ADT is utilized to slow cancer growth in cancer that has returned after initial therapy.
  2. Chemotherapy– It uses medications to destroy cancer cells in the body. It is also used when cancer has spread across to different organs. The drugs flow in the bloodstream. Since they kill any quickly developing cell, they attack both cancerous cells or non-cancerous cells.

Now that you know the symptoms of prostate cancer, look out for these. If you find any of these symptoms, don’t delay consulting your physician.

Also Read: What are the Qualities of a Good Carer?