Onion Crop Production in India – Key Requirement for Onion Farming

Onion is the second most important commercial Onion crop in India which is next to Potato. For instance, the onion crop has grown in about 5.30 million hectares with an annual production of 88.48 million tons around the world. Onion farming is the most profitable farming business and it does not require any type of professional skills. Growing onion on a commercial basis requires significantly less investment and also needs minimal care. As the onion crop has shallow roots, it is most suitable for intercropping. Almost every farmer in all the states in India does onion farming as Kharif and Rabi crop.

However, growing onion requires some crucial things to remember which further increase the productivity of your farming business. To remind you of those important factors, today we came up with this amazing blog which includes the details about the onion crop production guide in India. So without wasting any more time, let’s start this blog. 

Varieties of Onion Crop Grown in India 

Onion comes in many different shapes, size and colours. For instance, large and mature are most eaten around the globe. Young plants are harvested before the buds appear, which is known as spring onion or green onion. Moreover, the young bulbs before maturing are considering as summer onion. Apart from these, the most common varieties of onions are as follows. 

  • Red Onion – They are also known as purple onion and are the best choice for fresh use. 
  • White Onion – They are traditional onions that are widely used in most Mexican dishes. 
  • Yellow or Brown Onion – These are full-flavoured onion which is the best choice for normal everyday use.

Depending upon their growing condition, onions are classified into short days onion, long days onion, among others. Here are the characteristics of these onions. 

  • The short-day onion needs 10-12 hours of daylight in summer. These are suitable for the warm climate e,g, southern part of the country. 
  • The long day onion takes 14-15 hours of sunlight in summer. These are suitable for the northern part of the country. 
  • Intermediate verities of onions need 12-14 hours of sunlight, they require normal temperature in the middle part of the country. 

What are the Essential Requirements for Onion Farming?

  • Soil Requirement 

Onion crop can be produced in almost every type of soil such as heavy soil, clayey soil, sandy loam, and more. For instance, red to black loamy soil with good drainage is ideal for growing onion. Moreover, the soil must be enriched with a lot of organic matter and has good moisture holding capacity with 6.0 to 7.0 pH range. Dring the land preparation, onion crop requires adding organic matter. 

  • Climate Requirement

Onion cultivation can be possible under sub-tropical, temperate and tropical climate. In simpler words, gentle weather which is not too rainy, too cold or hot is ideal for onion growing.  

However, since every crop depends upon the cultivation season as the same way onions are also grown in the specific season. For instance, onion bulbs are planted in the winter season, further cultivated during the late winters season and harvested just before the beginning of the summer season. The ideal temperature for onion farming is between 13-25* C in India. 

  • Season Requirement 

In India, onions are grown in almost every region of India, due to this onions are cultivated both as Kharif and rabi crop. The time and season of onion cultivation depend upon the geographical location and weather at a particular place. 

  • Irrigation Requirement

The irrigation in onion crop depends upon the planting season, soil type, and age of the crop. Generally, irrigation is done at the time of seed plantation, during the transplantation period. Onion generally requires 30” of irrigation during the growing season. In case the onion does not get enough water it will not make the large bulbs. Always keep in mind that whenever necks start falling over and the onions getting mature, watering should be discontinued and the soil allowed to dry. 

Things to Remembers in Onion Farming

The proper management of watering and fertilization ensure a boost in overall crop production. As onion is a very sensitive plant, it needs some extra care on the regular basis.  

  • To get the best optimum results, the first application of fertilizers should be about 3 weeks after planting and then continue with applying every 2 to 3 weeks. 
  • At the time when the neck starts feeling soft, stop adding more fertilizers. Keep in mind that it must be stopped nearly 4 weeks earlier to harvest. 
  • Onion roots are vulnerable to moisture. So they need a steady watering process to thrives without problems. 

Top 10 Onion Producing States in India

StatesProduction (Tons)Share (%)
MAHARASHTRA11363.0043.31
MADHYA PRADESH4082.9015.20
KARNATAKA2275.008.47
RAJASTHAN1557.005.80
GUJARAT1243.004.89
BIHAR1313.164.63 
ANDHRA PRADESH980.61 3.65
HARYANA609.652.27 
UTTAR PRADESH454.031.69
TAMIL NADU434.581.62

Considering the above table, we can conclude that the maximum onion production takes place in Maharashtra, followed by Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.  

We hope you get enough information about onion farming and the essential things that boost the crop production. By considering these important factors, you can establish a highly profitable onion farming business. For more information about farming or other interesting farming related blogs, stay tuned with us.

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